Given a string S representing a roman numeral. Convert S into integer.
- S is guaranteed to be within the range from 1 to 3999.
- Roman numerals are represented by seven different symbools :
SYMBOL VALUE I 1 V 5 X 10 L 50 C 100 D 500 M 1000
- For example, two is written as
IIin Roman numeral, just two one's added together. Twelve is written as,
XII, which is simply
II. The number twenty seven is written as
XXVII, which is
- Roman numerals are usually written largest to smallest from left to right. However, the numeral for four is not
IIII. Instead, the number four is written as
IV. Because the one is before the five, so we subtract one from five to make it four. The same principle applies to the number nine, which is written as
IX. There are six instances where subtraction is used:
- I can be placed before V (5) and X (10) to make 4 and 9.
- X can be placed before L (50) and C (100) to make 40 and 90.
- C can be placed before D (500) and M (1000) to make 400 and 900.
Input: "III" Output: 3
Input: "IV" Output: 4
Input: "IX" Output: 9
Input: "LVII" Output: 57 Explanation: L = 50, V= 5, II = 2.